National Parks in India

What is a National Park?

A national park is a large area of land reserved and protected by the government for the upkeep of its natural and semi-natural flora (plant life), fauna (animal life), zoology, geomorphology, ecology, and environment.

In 1969, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) (founded in 1948 in France and at present with its headquarters located in Gland in Switzerland) and its body World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA) had defined the national park and also established the criteria of a national park. National parks come under category II of the protected areas defined by IUCN.

  • Established in 1872 as the first public park, the Yellowstone National Park in the west USA is considered to be the first national park globally.
  • Established in 1974, the Northeast Greenland National Park in Greenland (Greenland is part of Denmark country in Europe) is the world’s largest national park as defined by IUCN.
  • Established in 1976, the Isles des Madeleines National Park in Senegal is the world’s smallest national park as defined by IUCN.

National Parks in India

Section 35 of the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972 provides for the national parks in India. Under the Act, a state government can declare an area to be a national park.

Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972

Section 35: Whenever it appears to the State Government that an area, whether within a sanctuary or not, is, by reason of its ecological, faunal, floral, geomorphological or zoological association or importance, needed to be constituted as a National Park for the purpose of protecting, propagating or developing wild life therein or its environment, it may, by notification, declare its intention to constitute such area as a National Park.

#1. Total how many National Parks are in India? As of July 2022, there are 106 National parks in India which cover an area of 44,372.42 km2 which is about 1.35% of India’s total geographical area.
#2. When and where was the first national park established in India? The first national park was established in 1936 as Hailey National Park, now known as Jim Corbett National Park, Uttarakhand.
#3. Which is the largest National Park in India? The Hemis National park, Ladakh is the largest National Park in India.
#4. Which is the smallest National Park in India? South Button Island National Park, Andaman, and Nicobar Island is the smallest National Park in India.
#5. Which is the first marine National Park in India? The Gulf of Kutchh National Park, Gujarat is the first marine National Park in India.
#6. Which is a floating National Park in India? The Keibul Lamjao National Park, Manipur is floating National Park in India.

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